Low interest rates, decreasing margins and regulatory pressure: banks are faced with a variety of challenges regarding non-maturing deposits. Accurate and robust models for non-maturing deposits are more important than ever. These complex models depend largely on a number of modelling choices. In the savings modelling series, Zanders lays out the main modelling choices, based on our experience at a variety of Tier 1, 2 and 3 banks.
Identifying the core of non-maturing deposits has become increasingly important for European banking Risk and ALM managers. This is especially true for retail banks whose funding mostly comprises deposits. The last years, the concept of core deposits was formalized by the Basel Committee and included in various regulatory standards. European regulators consider a disclosure requirement of the core NMD portion to regulators and possibly to public stakeholders. Despite these developments, a lot of banks still wonder: What is core deposits and how do I identify them?
Finding funding stability: Core portion of deposits
Behavioural risk profiles for client deposits can be quite different per bank and portfolio. A portion of deposits can be stable in volume and price where other portions are volatile and sensitive to market rate changes. Before banks determine the behavioural (investment) profile for these funds, it should be analysed which deposits are suitable for long-term investment. This portion is often labelled as core deposits.
Basel standards define core deposits as balances that are highly likely to remain stable in terms of volume and are unlikely to reprice after interest rate changes. Behaviour models can vary a lot between (or even within) banks and are hard to compare. A simple metric such as the proportion of core deposits should make a comparison easier. The core breakdown alone should be sufficient to substantiate differences in the investment and risk profiles of deposits.
"A good definition of core deposit volume is tailored to banks’ deposit behavioural risk model."
Regulatory guidelines do not define the exact confidence level and horizon used for core analysis. Therefore banks need to formulate an interpretation of the regulatory guidance and set the assumptions on which their analysis is based. A good definition of core deposit volume is tailored to banks’ deposit behavioural risk model. Ideally, the core percentage can be calculated directly from behavioural model parameters. ALM and Risk managers should start with the review of internal behavioural models: how are volume and pricing stability modelled and how are they translated into investment restrictions?
Savings modelling series
This short article is part of the Savings Modelling Series, a series of articles covering five hot topics in NMD for banking risk management. The other articles in this series are: